Palantir Technologies, the data-mining company backed by tech billionaire Peter Thiel, broke years of suspense by filing to go public through a direct listing.The Denver-based company applied to list on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker PLTR, according to its filing on Tuesday with the US Securities and Exchange Commission.Palantir will not raise any proceeds in the listing and does not have traditional underwriters. In contrast with previous direct listings, though, investors will…